Types of Nouns: If you are a banking aspirant then you must be knowing the importance of the English Language as it carries a lot of weightage in Prelims and mains examination. In prelims, there are 30 questions for 30 marks which need to be answered in 20 minutes. Similarly in Mains also, the weightage of marks varies from exam to exam but generally, 40 marks are allocated to this section. You can easily clear this section if you have a strong hand on the basics of English Grammar. Considering the importance of grammar we will be covering nouns in this article, Make sure to read this article properly and fully understand the rules related to it.
Types Of Noun
Common nouns basically refer to people, places, and things in general like chair or dog.
Examples: teacher, car, music, danger, receipt etc.
- Have you seen my Cat?
Proper Noun refers to name of people, places or organizations are proper nouns. Your name is a proper noun. For ex- Delhi is a proper noun.
Concrete nouns refers to physical things that you can touch.For ex- Man, Rice etc.
Abstract nouns refers to opposite of concrete nouns. They are things that you cannot touch. Abstract nouns are ideas, concepts and feelings of a person.
Examples: happiness, courage, danger, truth etc
Countable nouns refer to things which you can count. Countable nouns have singular and plural forms.
Examples: ball, boy, cat, person
Uncountable Nouns refers to things that you cannot count. For ex- Water, sadness etc.
A collective noun refers to a group of individuals. For ex- Her family live in different countries.
A compound noun refers to a noun that is made with two or more words. Most compound nouns are [noun + noun] or [adjective + noun]. For ex- cat food, blackboard, breakfast, full moon etc.
Important Rules Of Nouns
1. There are some nouns always take a singular verb.
For ex-Scenery, advice, information, machinery, stationery, furniture, abuse, fuel, rice, gram, issue, bedding, repair, news, mischief, poetry, business, economics, physics, mathematics, classic, ethics, athletics, innings, gallows these are some of the words which always take a singular verb.
- The scenery of Nainital is enchanting.
- She has given advice.
2. There are some nouns that are singular in meaning, but they are used as plural nouns and always tends to take a plural verb.
For Ex-Cattle, gentry, vermin, peasantry, artillery, people, clergy, company, police.
(A) The cattle are grazing in the ground.
(B) Police have controlled the situation.
3. There are some nouns that are always used in a plural form and always take a plural verb. For Ex- Trousers, scissors, spectacles, stockings, shorts, measles, goods, alms, premises, thanks, tidings, annals, chattels, etc.
(A) Where is my trousers? ( Incorrect)
(A) Where are my trousers? ( correct)
4. There are some nouns that indicate length, measure, money, weight or number but when they are preceded by a numeral, they remain unchanged in form.
Some of the examples are- Foot, meter, pair, score, dozen, head, year, hundred, thousand, million.
(A) It is a four – years degree course. (Incorrect use )
(A) It is a four – year degree course. (correct use)
5. There are some collective nouns such as jury, public, team, committee, government, audience, orchestra, company, etc. are used both as singular and Plural. (A) The jury were divided in their opinion.
6. There are Some nouns which have one meaning in the singular and another in the plural:
a.Advice = counsel,
advices = information
b.Air = atmosphere,
airs = proud
c. Authority = command,
authorities = persons in power
d. Good = wise ,
goods = property
e. Iron = metal,
irons = fetters, chains
f. Force = strength
forces = army
g. Content = satisfaction,
contents = things contained
h. Respect = regards,
respects = compliments
i. Work = job
works = compositions, factories,.
So make sure you use them correctly to avoid any mistake.
7. There are certain nouns in which people are often confused or they commit mistakes.
(A) Lecturership ( Incorrect)
(A) lectureship ( correct).
8. Another important rule is a pronoun must agree with its antecedent in person, number and gender.
For Ex- Every kid must bring his luggage.
All kids must do their home work.
9. While you are using ‘everybody’ ‘everyone’, ‘anybody’, and ‘each’ the pronoun of the masculine or the feminine gender is used according to the context.
I shall be happy to help each of the girls in this practice.
The point to be noticed here is, when the sex is not mentioned, we use the pronoun of the masculine gender.
- For Ex- Anyone can qualify this exam if he tries.
- Each of the six boys in the class has finished their tasks. (Incorrect)
- Each of the six boys in the class has finished his task. (Correct)
10. When the pronoun ‘one’ is used it must be followed by ‘one’s’.
- For Ex- One must finish his lunch in time. (Incorrect)
- One must finish one’s lunch in time. (Correct)
11. Words like Enjoy, apply, resign, acquit, drive, exert, avail, pride, absent, etc., when used as transitive verbs, always take a reflexive pronoun after them. When ‘self’ is added to ‘my’, ‘your’, ‘him’, ‘her’, and ‘it’, and ‘selves’ to our and them – they are known as reflexive pronouns.
- For Ex-She absented from the meeting.
- She absented herself from the meeting.
12. Words like ‘Who’ denote the subject and ‘whom’ is used for the object?
Who: It’s the subject of a verb—e.g., Who gave you that bag?
It’s a predicate nominative which means that a noun in the predicate that renames or refers to the sentence’s subject)—e.g., This is who I am.
Whom is an objective pronoun, which is a pronoun that receives the action of a verb. It also has two main uses:
It is the object of a verb—e.g., Whom should I call?
It is the object of a preposition—e.g., From whom did you get this information?
13. If two or more singular nouns are connected by ‘either or’; ‘neither nor’, ; and ‘or’, the pronoun used is singular.
- For Ex-Either Sita or Rita will give their scooty. (Incorrect)
- Either Sita or Rita will give her book. (Correct)
14. When a singular and a plural noun are joined by ‘or’, ‘nor’, the pronoun must be plural.
- For Ex-Either the student or his teachers failed in his duty. (Incorrect)
- Either the student or his teachers failed in their duty. (Correct)
15. Words like ‘Whose’ is used for living persons and ‘which’ for lifeless objects.
- For Ex- Which book did you select?
- Whose book is lying there?
16. Words like ‘Each other’ is used when there are two subjects or objects and ‘one another’ when there are more than two.
- For Ex- Ram and Rita loved each other.
- Those six students, who are sitting there, love one another.
17. When a pronoun refer to a collective noun, it must be in the singular number and in the neuter gender if the collective noun is viewed as a whole but if it gives an idea of different entities , plural pronoun is used.
- For Ex- The jury gave ‘its’ verdict.
- Here the ‘jury’ gives the idea of one whole.
If the collective noun conveys the idea of separate individuals comprising the whole, the pronoun standing for it must be plural.
The jury were divided in their opinions.
in this sentence , the ‘jury’ gives the idea of several individuals.
18. If pronouns of different persons are to be used together in a sentence, the serial order of persons should be as follows;
- Second person(2) + third (3)+ first person(1) in General sentences.
- When mistake or fault is expressed in a sentence, the order should be; first person(1) + second person(2) + third person(3). RULE-231
For Ex- You, he and I have finished the work. (General idea)
I, you and he are to appreciated. ( here Confession of appreciation is expressed, it’s a Positive idea, hence order is 123)
19. Word-like ‘Some’ is used in affirmative sentences to express quantity or degree. ‘Any’ is uses in negative or interrogative sentences.
- For Ex-I shall buy some mango.
- I shall not buy any mangoes.
- Have you bought any mangoes?
But ‘some’ may be correctly used in interrogative sentences which are, in fact, requests.
- Will you please give me some water?
20. The use of words like ‘few’, ‘a few’’ and ‘the few’ should be used with care. They denote ‘number’.
‘Few’ means ‘not many’, or we can say ‘almost nothing’. A ‘few’ signifies positive and means ‘some at least’. ‘The few’ on the other hand means ‘whatever there is’.
- For Ex-A few women are free from fault. (Incorrect)
- Few women are free from fault. (Correct) (Here the sense is negative and thus we cannot use ‘a few’ .)
21. Use of ‘less’ and ‘fewer’
‘Less’ denote quantity while ‘fewer’ denote number.
- For Ex-No less than forty students were selected. (Incorrect)
- No fewer than forty students were selected. (Correct)
- There are no fewer than four liters of water in the bottle. (Incorrect)
- There are no less than four liters of water in the bottle. (Correct)
22. Use of words like little, a little, the little
- For Ex- ‘Little’ refers to ‘hardly any’
- There is little hope of her recovery. (Incorrect)
- There is a little hope of her recovery. (correct)
‘A little’ means ‘some’, but not much.
- Little knowledge can be a dangerous thing. (Incorrect)
- A little knowledge can be a dangerous thing. (Correct)
‘The little refers to ‘not much but all there is’.
- Little water that is in the bottle may be used for the child. (Incorrect)
- The little water that is in the bottle may be used for the patient. (Correct)
23. Correct Use of elder, older.
‘Elder’ is used to refer the age difference for persons of same family. While ‘Older’ refers to the persons as well as things and is followed by ‘than’.
- Sohan is elder than all other boys of this area. (Incorrect)
- Sohan is older than all other boys of this area. (Correct)
- Tabu is my older brother. (Incorrect)
- Tabu is my elder brother. (Correct)
24.We Normally use ‘than’ in the comparative degree, but with words like superior, inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, posterior and prefer ‘to’ is used.
- Tara is junior than Neeta.( Incorrect)
- Tara is junior to Neeta. (Correct)
- I prefer reading than walking. (Incorrect)
- I prefer reading to walking. (Correct)
25. When we do a comparison by using a comparative followed by ‘than’, the word ‘other’ must exclude the thing compared form the class of things with which it is compared.
- She is better than any woman. (Incorrect)
- She is better than any other woman. (Correct)
‘Any woman’ includes the woman herself and thus the sentences will be awkward.
26. When ‘many a’ is used it is always followed by the singular verb.
- For Ex- Many a kids were drowned in the river. (Incorrect)
- Many a kids was drowned in the river. (Correct)
27. When the words like ‘as well as’, ‘along with’, together with’, ‘no less than’, ‘in addition to’ and ‘not’ and ‘with’ join two subjects, the verb will be used according to the first subject.
- For Ex- Ravi, as well as his five friends, are going.( Incorrect)
- Ravi, as well as his five friends, is going. (Correct)
We hope that you have understood all the rules and regulations properly. The only way to learn them is to practice questions related to them. Simply cramming them will not be helpful and will not serve your purpose. You will easily forget it. So make sure you practice them as much as you can.